In this section, we will list recommended reading. Where possible we will link to online open access versions of the texts.

For a wide collection of relevant literature on the topic, including many pdfs and briefer Encyclopedia entries, see the web page of

Selected references:

Journal Articles (Open Access):


Daubney, A. “Floating culture: the unrecorded antiquities of England and Wales“, International Journal of Heritage Studies 23/9 (2017), 785-799.

Thomas, S. “The Future of Studying Hobbyist Metal Detecting in Europe: A Call for a Transnational Approach”. Open Archaeology 2/1 (2016), 140–149.

Campbell, S., and Thomas, S., (eds) “Portable Antiquities: Archaeology, Collecting, Metal Detecting”. Internet Archaeology 33 Special Issue (2013).

Kairiss, A. “Crime Against Cultural Property: Finding Solutions“. In:  Trzcińskiego, M. – Jakubowskiego, O. (eds). Przestępczość przeciwko dziedzictwu kulturowemu. Diagnoza, zapobieganie, zwalczanie [Crimes against cultural heritage – diagnosis, prevention, struggle] (Wroclaw, Beta-druk, 2016).

Kairiss, A. “Awareness_raising_and protection_of archaeological heritage“, Culture Crossroads 11 (Riga, Latvian Academy of Culture, 2017).

Hardy, S. A. “Is looting-to-order “just a myth”? Open-source analysis of theft-to-order of cultural property.” Cogent Social Sciences 1, no. 1 (2015): 1087110.

Paul, K. A. “Ancient Artifacts vs. Digital Artifacts: New Tools for Unmasking the Sale of Illicit Antiquities on the Dark Web“, Arts 2018, 7(2), 12; DOI: 10.3390/arts7020012 (download article)

see in general the Topical Issue on Aspects of Non-professional Metal Detecting in Europe in Open Archaeology 2/1 (2016) for many other articles on metal detectoring!


Brodie, N., Kersel, M. M., Luke, C., & Tubb, K. W., Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade (University Press of Florida, 2006).

Felch, J. & Frammolino, R., Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World’s Richest Museum (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 1 edition, 2011).

Renfrew, C. Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology (Debates in Archaeology) (Duckworth, 2000).