In this section, we will list recommended reading. Where possible we will link to online open access versions of the texts.

For a wide collection of relevant literature on the topic, including many pdfs and briefer Encyclopedia entries, see the web page of

Selected references:

Journal Articles (Open Access):

Daubney, A. “Floating culture: the unrecorded antiquities of England and Wales“, International Journal of Heritage Studies 23/9 (2017), 785-799.

Thomas, S. “The Future of Studying Hobbyist Metal Detecting in Europe: A Call for a Transnational Approach”. Open Archaeology 2/1 (2016), 140–149.

Campbell, S., and Thomas, S., (eds) “Portable Antiquities: Archaeology, Collecting, Metal Detecting”. Internet Archaeology 33 Special Issue (2013).

Chadburn, A. 2002. Recent work by the EAA Working Party in Illicitly Acquired Archaeological Material” in The European Archaeologist, No. 18, Winter 2002, 21.

Chadburn, A. 2013. The work of the European Association of Archaeologists on the illicit trade of archaeological and cultural material. In: Lagerlof, A. (ed.), Who cares? Perspective on Public Awareness, Participation and Protection in Archaeological Heritage Management, Europae Archaeologiae Consilium Occasional Paper No. 8, 13-16.

Chadburn, A. 2001a. “Part 5: Methods and Techniques. Metal Detecting” in

Chadburn et al (eds), Archaeological Research Agenda for the Avebury World Heritage Site, English Heritage, 89-91.

Chadburn, A. 2018. “Our Portable Past. Guidance for Best Practice”. Historic England, Swindon.

Kairiss, A. “Crime Against Cultural Property: Finding Solutions“. In:  Trzcińskiego, M. – Jakubowskiego, O. (eds). Przestępczość przeciwko dziedzictwu kulturowemu. Diagnoza, zapobieganie, zwalczanie [Crimes against cultural heritage – diagnosis, prevention, struggle] (Wroclaw, Beta-druk, 2016).

Kairiss, A. “Awareness_raising_and protection_of archaeological heritage“, Culture Crossroads 11 (Riga, Latvian Academy of Culture, 2017).

Hardy, S. A. “Is looting-to-order “just a myth”? Open-source analysis of theft-to-order of cultural property.” Cogent Social Sciences 1, no. 1 (2015): 1087110.

Paul, K. A. “Ancient Artifacts vs. Digital Artifacts: New Tools for Unmasking the Sale of Illicit Antiquities on the Dark Web“, Arts 2018, 7(2), 12; DOI: 10.3390/arts7020012 (download article)

see in general the Topical Issue on Aspects of Non-professional Metal Detecting in Europe in Open Archaeology 2/1 (2016) for many other articles on metal detectoring!


Brodie, N., Kersel, M. M., Luke, C., & Tubb, K. W., Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade (University Press of Florida, 2006).

Felch, J. & Frammolino, R., Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World’s Richest Museum (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 1 edition, 2011).

Renfrew, C. Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology (Debates in Archaeology) (Duckworth, 2000).